- Shoulder Osteoarthritis
- Hand/ wrist Osteoarthritis
- Hip Osteoarthritis
- Knee Osteoarthritis
- Foot/ Ankle Osteoarthritis
Occurs when the cartilage that covers the tops of bones, known as articular cartilage, degenerates or wears down. This causes swelling, pain, and sometimes the development of osteophytes — bone spurs — when the ends of the two bones rub together.
As with most types of osteoarthritis, pain is a key symptom. A person with shoulder arthritis is likely to have pain while moving the shoulder and after moving the shoulder. The person can even have pain while sleeping.
Hand/ wrist Osteoarthritis
Arthritis— which literally means “inflamed joint” — can affect any joint in the body, including the joints between the 29 bones of the wrist, hand, and fingers. Arthritis of the hand can hurt and keep you from being able to do what you want or need to do. The most common forms of arthritis in the hand are osteoarthritis, post-traumatic arthritis (after an injury), and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease in which the smooth cartilage that covers the bone surfaces at the joints either is injured or wears over time.
The three most common sites where arthritis happens in the hand are (see Figure 1):
- At the base of the thumb, where the thumb and wrist come together (the trapeziometacarpal or basilar joint)
- At the joint closest to the fingertip (the distal interphalangeal or DIP joint)
- At the middle joint of a finger (the proximal interphalangeal or PIP joint)
All forms of hand arthritis can cause stiffness, swelling, pain, and deformity. Osteoarthritis sometimes causes bony nodules at the middle joint of the finger (Bouchard’s nodes) or at the end joint of the finger (Heberden’s nodes) (see Figure 2). Osteoarthritis at the basilar joint can cause swelling, a bump, and a deep, aching pain at the base of the thumb. Weakness of grip and pinch can make it hard to open a jar or turn a key for those with osteoarthritis.
When diagnosing osteoarthritis, your doctor will ask you about your hands and other joints. Explain how your symptoms affect what you do. Your doctor will check how your hands look and function. X-rays of joints with osteoarthritis can show loss of normal joint space, “bone spurs,” or other changes.
Hip arthritis results in hip pain, joint weakness, joint instability, and restrictions of movement that interfere with your most basic daily tasks such as walking, climbing stairs or driving.
Your symptoms can develop suddenly or slowly and may include:
- Hip joint pain or tenderness that comes and goes. Typically there will be sharper pains in the groin, and sometimes an ache in the front of the thigh. Many people present with hip arthritis thinking that it is a knee problem.
- Hip stiffness, particularly early morning stiffness.
- Hip joint movement is difficult, especially inward rotation, movement of the leg across the body and hip extension.
- Weak hip muscles, especially during sit to stand, squatting and stair climbing.
- Hip joint swelling or deformity can be hard to detect because of the location of the hip joint.
improve the posture.
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in the knee. It is a degenerative,”wear-and-tear” type of arthritis that occurs most often in people 50 years of age and older, but may occur in younger people, too.
In osteoarthritis, the cartilage in the knee joint gradually wears away. As the cartilage wears away, it becomes frayed and rough, and the protective space between the bones decreases. This can result in bone rubbing on bone, and produce painful bone spurs.
Osteoarthritis develops slowly and the pain it causes worsens over time.
A knee joint affected by arthritis may be painful and inflamed. Generally, the pain develops gradually over time, although sudden onset is also possible. There are other symptoms, as well:
- The joint may become stiff and swollen, making it difficult to bend and straighten the knee.
- Pain and swelling may be worse in the morning, or after sitting or resting.
- Vigorous activity may cause pain to flare up.
- Loose fragments of cartilage and other tissue can interfere with the smooth motion of joints. The knee may “lock” or “stick” during movement. It may creak, click, snap or make a grinding noise (crepitus).
- Pain may cause a feeling of weakness or buckling in the knee.
- Many people with arthritis note increased joint pain with rainy weather.
There is no cure for arthritis but there are a number of treatments that may help relieve the pain and disability it can cause.
Foot/ Ankle Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative or “wear-and-tear” arthritis, is a common problem for many people after they reach middle age, but it may occur in younger people, too.
In osteoarthritis, the cartilage in the joint gradually wears away. As the cartilage wears away, it becomes frayed and rough, and the protective space between the bones decreases. This can result in bone rubbing on bone, and produce painful osteophytes (bone spurs).
In addition to age, other risk factors for osteoarthritis include obesity and family history of the disease.
Osteoarthritis develops slowly, causing pain and stiffness that worsen over time.
The symptoms of arthritis vary depending on which joint is affected. In many cases, an arthritic joint will be painful and inflamed. Generally, the pain develops gradually over time, although sudden onset is also possible. There can be other symptoms, as well, including:
- Pain with motion
- Pain that flares up with vigorous activity
- Tenderness when pressure is applied to the joint
- Joint swelling, warmth, and redness
- Increased pain and swelling in the morning, or after sitting or resting
- Difficulty in walking due to any of the above symptoms
Lifestyle modifications. Some changes in your daily life can help relieve the pain of arthritis and slow the progression of the disease. These changes include:
- Minimizing activities that aggravate the condition.
- Switching from high-impact activities (like jogging or tennis) to lower impact activities (like swimming or cycling) to lessen the stress on your foot and ankle.
- Losing weight to reduce stress on the joints, resulting in less pain and increased function.